CRYOGENIC PROCESSING

   
Professional Cryogenic Metallurgy & Coatings
                           
   "PCMC"
We are ready to provide our
Vari-Cold (TM)  Cryogenic treatment process to a wide variety of applications.

Cryogenics is a derivative of two Greek words - "Kryos" which means cold or freezing and "genes" meaning born or one that is produced
.

Residual stresses exist in all types of parts from engines to tooling.  The stress is introduced into the part at the time of casting, forging, heat treating or machining.  These stresses create an invisible random grain pattern. Parts expand from the heat generated during operation, the retained stresses cause uneven expansion which results in increased dimensional instability with increased wear and decreased performance.
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"CRYO" The Bear Says:   "Get The Winning Advantage With Deep Thermal Cycling Cryogenics!"  (TM)                                                                      
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Deep Cryogenic temperatures are required to effect a complete molecular change in most alloys giving the microstructure a more uniform grain structure.  Deep Cryogenic temperatures distribute large quantities of very hard, fine carbides, that develop uniformly throughout the structure.

Heat treatment of steel involves the transformation from its softer more malleable annealed state to a harder more durable state.  This is done, as it has been for centuries, by heating the steel and then rapidly cooling it.  The result is a harder and more wear resistant object.  The metallurgical reason for this is that as the steel is heated, it forms an austenite (large, unstable particles of carbon carbide) crystal structure or matrix.  Rapidly cooling or quenching the steel (traditionally at room temperature) triggers some of the austenite structure to change into a different matrix called martensite ( a more uniformly refined grain structure).  It is the martensite structure that gives tempered steel its hardness and wear resistance for applications from cutting tools to engine parts. 

The goal of heat treatment is to transform as much of the austenite as possible into martensite.  However, some of the austenite is retained even after tempering.  Through experimentation it was found that if the quench was lower than the traditional room temperature, less austenite was retained.  Cryogenic treatment is an extension of the well-known heat and quench cycle. 
Vari-Cold  (TM) Cryogenic Process Is specifically about controlled thermal cycling of materials over a period up to 72 hours.

The austenite to martensite transformation achieved by deep thermal cryogenics is responsible for the exceptional wear characteristics due to a denser structure and resulting in a larger surface area of contact which reduces: stress, fatigue, friction, heat and wear.

Our
Vari-Cold (TM) process utilizes computer controlled profiles to provide the "best" results for each component to be processed.  (Different materials require different types of heat treating; the same thing also applies to thermal cycling)   The type of material, the desired results and the volume to be processed determine the correct profile selection.
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Our Cryogenic Chambers are computer controlled providing an accurate and repeatable process.  This  insures that the thickest cross section of material receives total treatment.  We have the ability to configure treatment to any required specifications.  Our treatment also includes a mild heat cycle to complete the process.

This is a one time process, not a coating or surface treatment that can be machined away.  It will not make the component more brittle or change its physical size.  Our processing controllers are uniquely designed to allow the customer, if desired, to specify the parameters they desire.

Cryogenics was originally put to use by NASA in the mid sixties after discovering that deep space exploration vehicles had improved structural integrity after being exposed to cryogenic temperatures for a long period of time.  Cryogenics alters the molecular structure of ferrous and non-ferrous metals alike.  The realignment of the molecules enhances the performance making them more resistant to wear and breakage.  In laymen terms, cryogenic thermal cycling finishes what heat treatment started.  The cryogenic process converts the soft grained (Austenite) into a harder more stable grained (Martensite) providing a tighter grain structure which greatly improves structural integrity without making the componet more brittle


WHAT HAPPENS TO CRYOGENICALLY PROCESSED MATERIAL
    Cryogenically processed engines enjoy an  increase in HP & Torque and  prolonged engine life
     Abrasive wear resistance is increased
     A denser molecular structure is created in processed parts
     The resulting stronger surface area that is created reduces friction, heat and wear
     The entire processed part is changed, not just the surface
     Allows for rapid cooling of treated parts such as brake rotors
     High frequency and harmonic vibration is significantly reduced or eliminated
     Soft retained austenite is transformed to much harder martensite
     Microfine carbide fillers are formed which enhances the large carbide structures
     Durability or wear life of processed parts is greatly increased
     Residual stresses are decreased
     Brittleness is decreased
     Tensile strength, toughness and stability is increased coupled with the release of internal
         stresses














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